Success Stories

"Obviously I think the report is well done. [RAND's recommendations] all have merit, and we'll put in place what we think is appropriate as quickly as possible."

Our Customers Have Used RAND Benchmark to Strengthen their Departments

RAND Benchmark has been deployed at two major metropolitan U.S. police departments — Cincinnati and New York City — to assess their officers' performance.


Cincinnati hired RAND in 2004 to evaluate their progress on a collaborative agreement to improve police-community relations and resolve legal claims about racially biased policing in the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD). RAND determined that although the department as a whole did not engage in racially biased policing, a small set of individual officers appeared to conduct more stops than were appropriate for the members of their comparison group. The use of RAND Benchmark allowed CPD to take appropriate steps in training and working with these officers.

New York City

In February 2007, the New York City Police Department (NYPD) released statistics that indicated more than a half-million pedestrians had been stopped on suspicion of a crime in New York City in 2006 and a majority of those stops involved non-white individuals. The NYPD faced questions about whether the data pointed to racial bias in police officers' decisions to stop particular pedestrians. RAND determined that the racial distribution of stops at the department-wide level was similar to the racial distribution of arrestees in most categories. To examine racial distribution of stops at the officer level, RAND analyzed the stop outcomes of nearly 3,000 NYPD officers, those most active in conducting pedestrian stops. RAND Benchmark identified fifteen officers (0.5% of those examined) that appeared to have stopped more black or Hispanic pedestrians than their peers patrolling in similar environments.

RAND Has Advised Police Departments In Numerous Policy Areas

In addition to developing RAND Benchmark, the RAND Center on Quality Policing has conducted many studies and advised police departments nationwide on relevant policy issues.

Policy AreaPolice Department(s)
Community policing Oakland
Gun violenceLos Angeles, Pittsburgh
Leadership development Dallas
Officer-involved shootings New York City
Police-community relations Cincinnati
Police performance measurement Dallas
Racial profiling analysisCincinnati, New York City, Oakland
RecruitingLos Angeles, New Orleans, San Diego
Return on police investmentChicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade, Philadelphia
Technology Dallas
TrainingDallas, Los Angeles